Equality and Nondiscrimination

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A human rights-based approach to the criminalization of HIV exposure

The appellant, E.L., a 26 year old mother of four living with HIV, was charged and convicted in the lower court under Section 192 of the Malawian Penal Code (Code) for unlawfully (negligently) engaging in an act likely to spread a disease dangerous to life. The prosecution argued that the appellant “unlawfully, negligently and knowingly” breastfed the complainant’s baby, who was left in her care. At the time of the incident, E.L. was on Anti Retro Treatment (ART).

Shayara Bano and others v. Union of India and others, Writ Petition (C) No. 118 of 2016

Shayara Bano was married for 15 years. In 2016, her husband divorced her through talaq–e-bidat (triple talaq). This is an Islamic practice that permits men to arbitrarily and unilaterally effect instant and irrevocable divorce by pronouncing the word ‘talaq’ (Arabic for divorce) three times at once in oral, written or, more recently, electronic form.

African Court upholds land rights for Kenya’s Ogiek

In October 2009, the Kenya Forestry Service issued an eviction notice requiring the Ogiek, a forest-dwelling community and one of Kenya’s most marginalized indigenous peoples, to leave the Mau Forest within 30 days.

Swaziland High Court advances women's property rights

Nombuyiselo Sihlongonyane and Mholi Joseph were married under civil rites and in community of property.[1] In January 2013, on the basis of her husband’s infidelity and mismanagement of their estate, Sihlongonyane applied to the High Court of Swaziland (High Court) to have her husband removed as the administrator of their joint property.

Swaziland Supreme Court advances women's property rights

Mary-Joyce Doo Aphane, a woman’s rights activist, commenced legal proceedings in the High Court of Swaziland (High Court) against the Registrar of Deeds, the Minister of Justice and Constitutional Affairs, and the Attorney General, arguing that Section 16(3) of the Deeds Registry Act, 1968 (Act) violated her constitutional right to equality because it forbids women married in community of property[1] to register immov

Participatory implementation of D.H. case promotes inclusion of Roma children in Czech schools

The applicants were Czech children of Roma descent, between nine and 15 years old, who had been placed in "special schools" for children with mental disabilities between 1996 and 1999. Their situation was not unique. In 1999, the probability of a Roma child of being assigned to a “special school” was more than 27 times higher than for a non-Roma child.

Data collection on children living with HIV must respect the right to privacy

On February 23, 2015, President Kenyatta issued a national directive, copied to several national government entities, ordering all County Commissioners to collect data and prepare a report on all school-going children living with HIV and AIDS, as well as guardians and expectant and breastfeeding mothers living with HIV and AIDS.

Undocumented workers should be granted equal rights, states the Inter-American Commission

Leopoldo Zumaya and Francisco Berumen Lizalde were both injured on the job while working without work authorization in the United States. Each sustained long-term physical damage and were denied access to compensation solely because of their immigration status. Mr. Zumaya filed a workers’ compensation claim but had to settle for a fraction of what he would have received if he had been a U.S. legal permanent resident or citizen. Mr.

High Court case

In 2012, seeking to standardize education nationwide, the Department of Basic Education (DBE) began the three-year rollout of a new curriculum which entailed staggered introduction of new textbooks. Despite the successful rollout in other provinces, in Limpopo the Provincial Government was unable to deliver textbooks to all learners by the start of the 2012 school year.

In 2001 Aberew Jemma Negussie abducted and raped 13-year-old Woineshet Zebene Negash, with the aid of several accomplices. Her abduction was reported to the police, who rescued her and arrested Mr. Negussie in Ethiopia. Evidence of the rape was documented in a medical report. Mr. Negussie was freed on bail and abducted Ms. Negash again, this time hiding her in his brother’s house for a month and forcing her to sign a marriage contract. She managed to escape. In 2003 Mr.