Three brothers (V) lived in Switzerland from 1980 as recognised refugees. In 1987, they were expelled from Switzerland to Czechoslovakia for criminal offences. In September 1991, they illegally re-entered Switzerland.
Twenty deputies of the Latvian Parliament (the Saeima) claimed that certain employers were not paying social insurance premiums into a fund for their employees. The deputies asserted a breach of the constitutional right to social security and Articles 9 and 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) since the State had failed to ensure the relevant legislation ensured that premiums were paid by employers.